"To confess Jesus as Lord was frequently quite hazardous in the first century (cf. Mt 10:18; 1 Thes 2:2; 1 Pt 2:18–21; 3:14). For a Jew it could mean disruption of normal familial and other social relationships, including great economic sacrifice. In the face of penalties imposed by the secular world, Christians are assured that no one who believes in Jesus will be put to shame (Rom 10:11)."
Romans 10:13 is a quotation of Joel 2:32, which proves that Jesus is Lord in the same sense as the Father is Lord. Christ is called Yahweh in verse nine.
Also, Christians who resided in Rome were at higher risk of persecution as citizens were expected to confess Caesar as Lord. The divinity of Jesus Christ was a direct challenge to the lordship of the Roman emperor. So understanding the historical context in which Paul was writing sheds more light on how Romans 10:9 points to Jesus being God. Why then does the text being studied state that God raised Him from the dead?
Jesus is God incarnate. He took on human flesh. He is both fully human and fully divine. He exercised both human and divine attributes throughout His earthly ministry. Christ was crucified for our transgressions. His divine essence is not what passed away. Rather, a divine Person in His human flesh died. He did not set aside His divinity by taking on human flesh. The Father raised Christ from the grave (Acts 2:32; Galatians 1:1). The Son raised Himself from the grave (John 2:19; 10:17-18). The Holy Spirit raised Him from the grave (Romans 8:11). All three Persons of the Trinity brought about the resurrection. Romans 10:9-10 serves as a strong biblical proof for Jesus being God.