- Testimony From The Didache:
- Testimony From 1 Clement:
- Testimony From The Shepherd Of Hermas:
- Basic Presentation On The Historical Development Of The Roman Catholic Hierarchy As Confirmed By Modern-Day Scholarship:
+Starting in the mid third century, we see the rise of diocesan bishops, who presided over small groups of churches along with their own local, individualized congregation. We also see the rise of diocesan bishops from the largest and wealthiest cities of this time, who came to be known as the patriarchs.
+Around the timing of 450-590 AD, we see the five patriarchs, which were Jerusalem, Antioch, Rome, Constantinople, and Alexandria. Each patriarch governed itself. Though Rome and Constantinople were perceived as having equal authority, the Church of Rome was viewed in highest regard. Constantinople was the leading patriarch of the east. But neither of the two competing patriarchs possessed universal authority over the rest of Christendom.
+In the late sixth century leading into the seventh, there was a major, final struggle between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches for the title of Universal Bishop. In other words, the two most powerful patriarchs fought for jurisdiction over the entire Christian church. Although Constantinople was first to appoint its head as being the Universal Bishop of Christianity, the Roman Bishop Gregory condemned the usage of the title as being characteristic of an anti-Christ. He declared that no man, not even himself, was worthy of possessing such an arrogant title! In the end, the Church of Rome ended up being victorious in this battle for supreme authority when Gregory's successor Boniface III reserved it for himself. The head of the Roman Catholic Church still wields this title of absolute power, wealth, and authority. Thus, we see the historic origin of the Papal office in its current organizational structure. The popes have simply taken on titles once belonging to the Roman Caesars.
- The Words Of Church Historian Henry C. Sheldon On The Development Of Papal Authority