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Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Formulating Logical Thoughts

  • Introduction:
          -Derived from the Greek word "Logos", the English word "logic" is the process that examines how the principles of reason are used in any given context. In other words, it the the formulation of rational thoughts which are established on known laws of logic. Reasoning consists entirely of premises that are used to draw a conclusion from analyzed data. The process of logic investigates the validity of premises and therefore determines the validity of any reached conclusion. If A = B and B = C, then A = C. Evidence can point in favor of, remain neutral, or away from any given proposition.
  • Deductive Logic:
          -This method of reasoning operates on inferences from a series of statements to obtain a logically plausible conclusion. This form of logic connects premises to conclusions. In order to reach a truthful conclusion by using deducting reasoning, the premises must be true. The conclusions automatically follows from these kinds of arguments.
  • Inductive Logic:
          -This method of reasoning operates on multiple logical premises, which are believed to be true. However, the conclusions for this kind of argumentation are not completely verifiable. They are not always certain. Applications of inductive logic are required in areas involving prediction, forecasting, or behavior.
  • The Three Foundational Laws Of Classic Logic:
          -The three fundamental laws of basic logic are the Law of Non-Contradiction, the Law of Excluded Middle, and the Law of Identity.
  • The Law Of Non-Contradiction:
          -The Law of Non-Contradiction states that a proposition cannot be both true and false at the same time. Any given series of statements cannot rule out the possibility of each other. In order to be true, they cannot be irreconcilable.
  • The Law Of Excluded Middle:
          -The Law of Excluded Middle teaches that either a given proposition is true or its negation is true. Unknown ideas are not equivalent to being true or false, since their validity is not known.
  • The Law Of Identity:
          -The Law of Identity teaches that each object is identical with itself. An item exists in the form that it exists. It is exactly as our eyes perceive. In other words, A = A.