Wednesday, May 10, 2017

On The Formation Of Logical Thoughts

  • Introduction:
          -Derived from the Greek word "Logos," the English word "logic" is the process that examines how the principles of reason are used in contexts such as philosophy, science, and mathematics. In other words, it the the formulation of rational thoughts which are established on known laws of logic. Reasoning consists of the application of logic by making inferences based on available data. An argument consists of premises that are used in forming a conclusion from analyzed data. 
          -The end game of using logic is to get to the bottom of things, whether they be important, why they matter, and their consequences. The process of logic investigates the validity of premises in determining the validity of any reached conclusion. If A = B and B = C, then A = C. That would be an instance of a sound conclusion based on sound logical premises. Some ideas are good while others are better or the best. Evidence can point in favor of, remain neutral, or away from any given proposition.
  • Deductive Logic:
          -This method of reasoning operates on inferences from a series of statements to obtain the most truthful conclusion possible (premises can usually be doubted to some extent). This form of logic connects premises to conclusions. 
          -In order to reach a truthful conclusion by using deducting reasoning, the premises must be true. We take into consideration the rules of inference (e.g. modus ponens, modus tollens, and contraposition). The conclusions automatically follow from these kind of arguments.
  • Inductive Logic:
          -This method of reasoning operates on multiple logical premises, which are believed to be true. However, the conclusions for this kind of argumentation are not completely verifiable. They are not always certain. Applications of inductive logic are required in areas involving prediction, forecasting, or behavior.
  • Abductive Logic:
          -This method of logical reasoning works with an incomplete series of observations. It involves one choosing the most likely hypothesis out of many. An argument that uses this kind of reasoning is based on the best available explanation of data. It is defined in a practical way in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier, in which Mr. Sherlock Holmes says, “…when you have eliminated all which is impossible, then whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.”
  • The Three Foundational Laws Of Classic Logic:
          -The three fundamental laws of basic logic are the Law of Non-Contradiction, the Law of Excluded Middle, and the Law of Identity:
           *Law of Non-Contradiction states that a proposition cannot be both true and false at the same time. Any given series of statements cannot rule out the possibility of each other. In order to be true, they cannot be irreconcilable.
           *The Law of Excluded Middle teaches that either a given proposition is true or its negation is true. Unknown ideas are not equivalent to being true or false, since their validity is not known.
           *The Law of Identity teaches that each object is identical with itself. An item exists in the form that it exists. In other words, A = A.               

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